See also: Uniform (American football)
Uniform numbers in American football are unusual compared to those in other sports. They are displayed in more locations on the uniform; they are universally worn on both the front and back of the jersey; and in many cases "TV numbers" are displayed on either the jersey sleeves, the shoulder pad, or occasionally on the helmets. The numbers on the front and back of the jersey also are very large, covering most of the jersey. More important, certain numbers may only be worn by players playing specific positions; thus, the jersey numbers assist the officials in determining possible rules infractions by players.
Under current rules in all three of the most prominent levels of American football (high school football, college football and professional football), all players must wear a number between 1 and 99, and no two players on the same team may wear the same number on the field at the same time. In the past, players have used the numbers 0, 00 and in two special cases 100. Those who wear numbers between 50 and 79 are, by rule, playing in specific positions which are prohibited from catching or touching forward passes if their team is in possession of the ball, unless explicitly indicated to the referee during a tackle-eligible play. Other than this, the correspondence between jersey numbers and player positions is largely an issue of semantics.
Main article: National Football League uniform numbers
See also: List of National Football League retired numbers
The National Football League numbering system dates from a large scale change of their rules in 1973, subsequently amended in various minor ways. As of 2015, players are generally required to wear numbers within ranges based on their positions as shown in the following table.
|Number Range||QB||RB||WR||TE / H||OL||DL||LB||DB||K / P|
Long snappers, not listed in the league's numbering system, can wear any number from 40 to 99; as the long snapper is seldom listed as a distinct position, players who long-snap are often listed as backup centers or backup tight ends.
Exceptions to this system do exist, including during the National Football League preseason with associated larger team rosters. The numbers used relate to the player's primary position - unless it conflicts with the eligible receiver rule, players whose primary position changes during a season, do not need to change their number.
Although the NFL does allow teams to retire jersey numbers, the league officially discourages the practice for fear of teams running out of numbers. As a result, a few teams do not retire jersey numbers.
According to NCAA rule book, Rule 1 Section 4 Article 1 recommends numbering as follows for offensive players:
Otherwise all players must be numbered 1–99; the NCAA makes no stipulation on defensive players. Two players may also share the same number though they may not play during the same down.
The lowest numbers are often considered the most prestigious, and they are frequently worn not just by specialists and quarterbacks but also by running backs, defensive backs, and linebackers. Kickers and punters are frequently numbered in the 40s or 90s, which are the least in-demand numbers on a college roster. The increased flexibility in numbering of NCAA rosters is needed since NCAA rules allow larger rosters than the NFL; thus teams would frequently exhaust the available numbers for a position under the NFL rules. It is not uncommon for NCAA teams to have duplicate numbers, with an offensive player having the same number as a defensive one—this is allowed as long as both players are not on the field at the same time. Usually, one of the players will be a reserve who rarely plays, but this is not always the case: for example, the 2005 Texas Longhorns team had two key players who both wore #4: wide receiver Limas Sweed and linebacker Drew Kelson. The 2007 USC Trojans team had two key players who both wore #10: quarterback John David Booty and linebacker Brian Cushing. The 2008 Missouri Tigers both had key players wearing #1: safety William Moore and running back Jimmy Jackson. In the same season, the Alabama Crimson Tide had four numbers shared by two players each. In the 2009 season, the Ohio State Buckeyes roster also had numerous duplicate numbers: quarterback Terrelle Pryor and cornerback Malcolm Jenkins both wore #2, and running back Daniel Herron and linebacker Marcus Freeman both wore #1, while USC had both running back C. J. Gable and safety Taylor Mays wearing #2. At Texas, both safety Earl Thomas and quarterback Colt McCoy both wore #12. In 2010 at the University of Illinois, both quarterback Nathan Scheelhaase and linebacker Martez Wilson wore #2. In 2012, Notre Dame starting linebacker and team captain Manti Te'o and starting quarterback Everett Golson both wore #5. Virginia Tech defensive end Ken Ekanem wore #4 from 2013 through 2016, sharing the number with running back JC Coleman in 2013-2015 and quarterback Jerod Evans in 2016. For the 2016 Michigan Wolverines both starting quarterback Wilton Speight and defensive tackle Rashan Gary wore #3.
Perhaps the most interesting use of duplicate numbers was at South Carolina. Both cornerback Stephon Gilmore and quarterback Stephen Garcia wore #5. However, Gilmore also played quarterback for the Gamecocks, usually in the wildcat formation. During the annual end of season derby in 2009, Head Coach Steve Spurrier effectively rotated Garcia and Gilmore at the quarterback position, confusing the Clemson defense (and many fans). Because Garcia and Gilmore were never on the field at the same time, it was perfectly legal.
Individual schools often have superstitions or traditions involving certain numbers. It may be a great honor to be given the number 1 uniform, for example, such as at the University of Michigan. The top-performing walk-on at Texas A&M University will often be issued number 12, in reference to their 12th Man tradition. Syracuse University historically reserved number 44 for its best running backs, including Jim Brown, Ernie Davis, and Floyd Little, finally retiring the number permanently in 2005. The number 12 is also prestigious at the University of Alabama. It is usually reserved for top quarterbacks, although it was worn by 1930s lineman Bear Bryant, who became a coaching legend at Alabama. Since Bryant's era, it has been worn by Kenny Stabler, Joe Namath, Brodie Croyle, and Greg McElroy. At Ole Miss, the #38 worn by defensive back Chucky Mullins, who suffered a paralyzing injury in a 1989 game that ultimately led to his death in 1991, was given each season as an award to a defensive player who was seen as epitomizing Mullins' spirit. The number was retired in Mullins' memory in 2006, but it was an unpopular move, and the number as award was restored in 2010 with both offensive and defensive players eligible to win the award now. Beginning in 2016, Virginia Tech head coach Justin Fuente began awarding the team's top special teams player with the number 25 on a weekly basis in honor of the recently retired Frank Beamer (the number Beamer wore in his playing days at Virginia Tech).
Another notable exception was during the 1963 season at West Virginia University; the college was able to successfully lobby the NCAA to allow a player, namely kicker Chuck Kinder, to wear the jersey Number 100 for the state's 100th anniversary. Kinder continued to wear this jersey until the 1966 season, when the new coaching staff asked him to stop wearing it due to all the questions they were receiving about the unusual number. Similarly, University of Kansas kicker, Bill Bell, and University of Louisville defensive back, Mike Detenber, each wore jersey number 100 in 1969 as part of the celebration of the 100th anniversary of college football.
In 2013, Michigan quarterback Devin Gardner was given jersey number 98 to wear as part of the Michigan Football Legends program. Before 2011, the number had been retired in honor of Tom Harmon, a Michigan legend and the father of actor Mark Harmon. Although it is unusual for a quarterback to wear a number higher than the 20s even at the collegiate level, Gardner, a redshirt junior at Michigan, wore the number for the remainder of his career at Michigan. He wore number 12 (a more standard number for a quarterback) before being honored.
On high school and other lower youth teams, jerseys with different number ranges are different sizes, and since many of these teams do not reorder jerseys every year, players are often assigned numbers based more on jerseys that fit them rather than specific position.Odessa Permian High School (of Friday Night Lights fame) plays in Texas, where NCAA rules are used; yet Permian's tradition is that quarterbacks will wear numbers in the 20s unlike most schools in college or high school. 
Although previous editions of the National Federation of State High School Associations rule book indicated a recommended numbering system nearly identical to the NCAA's, later editions from approximately 2000 onward only indicate the bare minimum requirements: offensive linemen must be numbered from 50 to 79, while backs and ends must wear numbers either from 1 to 49 or 80 to 99.
- ^ ab2015 NFL Rulebook
- ^Ty Montgomery [@TyMontgomery2] (11 March 2017). "Me and Rod Bernstine have something in common.... and it's not #88 #keepingit" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- ^Rapoport, Ian (September 8, 2008). "What's the deal with duplicate numbers?". Birmingham News. Retrieved September 27, 2008.
- ^"The Legend of #44". Syracuse University Athletics. Retrieved February 19, 2007.
- ^Stallard, Mark (2004). Tales from the Jayhawk Gridiron. Sports Publishing. The anecdote featuring Bell's number 100, with a picture of Bell's number 100 jersey, can be found on pages 94–96.
- ^Hinnen, Jerry (September 7, 2013). "Devin Gardner to wear No. 98 in honor of Tom Harmon". CBS Sports.
- ^"Permian blasts Timon (NY)". September 16, 2006. Retrieved November 12, 2017.
- ^Only centers are permitted to wear these numbers, but there have been exceptions. For instance, guard Brian Waters wore No. 54 for all but one season of his career.
Football RulesPlayer PositionsFootball StrategyFootball Glossary
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The rules of football can be complex and vary depending on the level of play. We will cover some of the basics here including the field, players, offense, defense, and penalties.
The football field is 120 yards long and 53 ½ yards wide. At each end of the field and 100 yards apart are the goal lines. The additional 10 yards at each end is the end zone. The field is divided up every 5 yards by a yard line. The middle yard line marker is called the 50 yard line. In parallel to the side lines are rows of hash marks. The football is always placed on or between the hash marks at the start of each play. This ensures that the teams have space to line up on both sides of the football. The position of the football that defines the sides of the ball is called the "line of scrimmage".
There are also goal posts at the back of each football end zone. One way to score is to kick the football through the goal posts. The ball must go between the uprights and over the crossbar.
If any part of a player with the football touches outside the side lines or the end zone it is considered Out of Bounds.
Football is a timed sport. The team with the most points at the end of the time period, wins the game. The game is divided up into 4 periods or quarters with a long "half time" between the second and third quarter. Time is counted while plays are running and sometimes between plays (i.e. time continues after a running play where the player was tackled in bounds, but stops on an incomplete pass). To keep the game going at a good pace the offense has a limited time (called the play clock) between plays.
The rules in football allow each team to have eleven players on the field at a time. Teams may substitute players between plays with no restrictions. Each team must start a play on their side of the ball.
The defensive players may take any position they want and can move about their side of the football prior to the play without restriction. Although there are certain defensive positions that have become common over time, there are no specific rules defining defensive positions or roles.
The offensive players, however, have several rules that define their position and what role they may take in the offense. Seven offensive players must be lined up on the line of scrimmage. The other four players must be lined up at least one yard behind the line of scrimmage. All of the offensive football players must be set, or still, prior to the play beginning with the exception of one of the four backs which may be moving parallel or away from the line of scrimmage. Further rules say that only the four backs and the players at each end of the line of scrimmage may catch a pass or run the football.
The Football Play
The team with the possession of the football is called the offense. The offense tries to advance the football on plays. The defense tries to prevent the offense from scoring or advancing the football. The down system: The offense must advance the ball at least 10 yards every four plays or downs. Each time the offense is successful in advancing the ball 10 yards, they get four more downs or what is called a "first down". If the offense does not get 10 yards in four plays, the other team gains possession of the football at the current line of scrimmage. In order to keep the other team from getting good field position the offense can punt (kick) the ball to the other team intentionally. This is often done on 4th down, when the offense is outside of field goal range. Offensive plays on downs start with a snap. This is when the center passes the football between their legs to one of the offensive backs (usually the quarterback). The ball is advanced either by running with the football (called rushing) or passing the football. The football play is over when 1) the player with the football is tackled or goes out of bounds 2) an incomplete pass 3) there is a score.
The offensive team can lose possession of the football by:
- Not getting 10 yards in four downs.
- Fumbling or dropping the football and the defensive team recovers it.
- Throwing the football to a defensive player for an interception.
- Punting or kicking the football to the defensive team.
- Missing a field goal.
- Getting tackled in the end zone for a safety.
There are many rules and penalties that are enforced during a football game. Most football penalties result in a loss or gain of yardage depending on whether the penalty is against the offense or the defense. The severity of the penalty determines the number of yards. Most penalties are 5 or 10 yards, but some personal foul penalties result in 15 yards. Also, pass interference can result in a penalty that matches the length of the intended pass. The team that did not commit the penalty has the right to decline the penalty. We won't list or detail every possible football infraction, but here are some of the more common football penalties:
False Start: When a football player on the offense moves just prior to the snap. This is a five yard penalty. Note that one back on the offense can legally be "in motion" at the time of the snap.
Offside: If a player from the offense or defense is on the wrong side of the line of scrimmage at the time of the snap. A defensive player can cross the line of scrimmage as long as they get back before the snap, but if they touch an offensive player they can be called for encroachment.
Holding: When a player grabs a football player without the ball with the hands or hooks him or tackles him.
Pass Interference: When a defender contacts a pass receiver after the ball is in the air to prevent him from catching the ball. This is up to the referee to determine. If the contact is before the ball is in the air it will be called defensive holding. Note that pass interference can also be called on the offense if the defender has position and is trying to catch the ball.
Facemask: To protect the football players, it is illegal to grab another player's facemask.
Roughing the Passer or Kicker: To protect kickers and quarterbacks, who are very vulnerable when they are passing or kicking the ball, players are not allowed to run into them after the ball has been thrown or kicked.
Intentional Grounding: When the passer throws a pass nowhere near an eligible receiver strictly to avoid being sacked.
Ineligible Receiver Downfield: When one of the offensive players that is not an eligible receiver is more than 5 yards downfield from the line of scrimmage during a forward pass.
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