Industrial Pollution In India Case Study

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This paper examines the development and environmental aspects of the textile industry at Tiruppur, a major textile cluster in India. Adopting a sustainable development framework, it focuses on the growth of Tiruppur’s textile industry in the context of global diversification of textile manufacturing and trade.

The paper shows that the export boom in Tiruppur has led to serious damage to the environment. To some extent the over-all economic benefit of the industry has led to the neglect of the environmental costs. However, the environmental cost borne by the downstream communities who have no connection with the industries is a major concern. The physical environment (ground water, soil, river, ponds, and biodiversity) of the entire region may be losing its ecological value in an irreversible manner. Among the major causal factors are:

  • the processing units are in the small-scale sector and hence the affordability of pollution control is a problem.
  • the failure of institutions such as the State Pollution Control Board, Industrial Organizations, NGOs and local governments to find an effective solution to the problem.
  • dependence of the processing units on the traditional method of processing which consume more water and chemical, and generate more effluent.

The author makes the following policy recommendations to address the problem:
  • de-reservation of hosiery from the small scale industries sector
  • introduction of cleaner production technologies
  • changing the present practice of imposing full cost of pollution management on dyers, and sharing of the responsibility by the entire textile value chain
  • introduction of economic disincentives such as effluent taxes
  • public-private-partnership project for industrial waste management
  • application of natural dyes


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