Critical Thinking Reading Comprehension Process

Alyousef, H. S. (2005). Teaching reading comprehension to ESL/EFL learners. The Reading Matrix, 5(2), 143-154.

Anderson, N. J. (2013). Active skills for reading. Toronto: Heinle&Heinle Publishers.

Asgharheidari, F. & Tahriri, A. (2015). A survey of EFL teachers; Attitudes towards critical thinking instruction. Journal of language teaching and research3, 388-396.

Astleitner, H. (2002). Teaching critical thinking online. Journal of Instructional Psychology. 29(2), 53-76. Institute of Education.

Fahim, M., & Sa’eepour, M. (2011). The impact of teaching critical thinking skills on reading comprehension of Iranian EFL learners. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(4), 867-874.

Fahim, M., & Ahmadian, M. (2012). Critical Thinking and Iranian EFL Context. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 3(4), 793-800.

Fahim, M., & Nasrollahi-Muziraji, A. (2013). The relationship between Iranian EFL students' self-efficacy beliefs and critical thinking ability. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3 (3), 538-543. doi:10.4304/tpls.3.3.538-543.

Grabe, W. (2010). How reading works: Comprehension process. Reading in a second language. New York: Cambridge University Press

Griffith, P.L. &Ruan, J. (2005). What is metacognition and what should be its role in literacy instruction? Metacognition in Literacy learning. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hashemi, M. R. &Zabihi, R. (2012). Does Critical Thinking Enhance EFL Learners’ Receptive Skills? Journal o Language Teaching and Research, 3(1), 172-179.

Halvorsen, A. (2005). Incorporating critical thinking skills development in to ESL/EFL courses. Internet TESL Journal, 11(3) Retrieved March14,2013, fromhttp://iteslj.org/Techniques/HalvorsenCriticalThinking.html.

Kabilan, M. K. (2000). Creative and critical thinking in language classroom. The Internet TESL Journal 6(6). Retrieved September 3, 2014, from http://iteslj.org/Techniques/.

Kamali, Z., & Fahim, M. (2011).The relationship between critical thinking ability of Iranian EFL learners and their resilience level facing unfamiliar vocabulary items in reading. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(1), 104-111.

Kaplan, R. (Ed.). (2002). The Oxford handbook of applied linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kennedy, M., Fisher, M. B., & Ennis, R. H. (1991). Critical thinking: Literature review and needed research. In L. Idol & B.F. Jones (Eds.), Educational values and cognitive instruction: Implications for reform (pp. 11-40). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates.

Khorasani, M. M., & Farimani, M. A. (2010). The Analysis of critical thinking in Fariman's teachers and factors influencing it. Journal of Social Science of Ferdowsi University, 6(1), 197-230.

Ku, Y. L. K. (2009). Assessing students’ critical thinking performance: Urging for measurements using multi-response format. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 4: 70-76.

Retrieved from Kurland Kurland, D. (2006). Steps in Critical Reading: http//www.criticalreading.com/step5.htm on November, 28, 2013.

Mall-Amiri, B., & Ahmadi, Z. (2014). The relationship between EFL learners’ critical thinking and metacognitive strategies. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 5(1), 488-505.

Malmir, A., & Shoorcheh, S. (2012). An investigation of the impact of teaching critical thinking on the Iranian EFL learners' speaking skill. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 3(4), 608-617.

McPeck, J. (1981). Critical thinking and education. Oxford: Martin Robertson & Company Ltd.

MoeiniAsl, H, R (2002). Construct Validation of Reading Comprehension Thesis (pp. 11-57). Tehran: Tehran University for Teacher Education.

Nair, Girjia, G., and Lynnette Leeseberg Stamler. A. Conceptual Framework for Developing Critical Thinking Self-Assessment Scale, Journal of Nursing Education. 52(3)131-138.

Nikoopour, J., Amini Farsani, M., & Nasiri, M. (2011). On the relationship between critical thinking and language learning strategies among Iranian EFL learners. Journal of Technology & Education, 5(3), 195-200.

Nosratinia, M., &Zaker, A. (2013, August). Autonomous learning and critical thinking: Inspecting the association among EFL learners. Paper presented at the First National Conference on Teaching English, Literature, and Translation, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Retrieved September 5, 2014 from http://www.civilica.com/Paper- TELT01-TELT01_226.html.

Nosratinia, M., & Sarabchian, E. (2013). Predicting EFL learners’ Emotional Intelligence and critical thinking ability through Big-Five Personality Traits: A study on psychological characteristics of EFL learners. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 4 (9) 500-515.

Nuttal, C. (1998). Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language. Macmillan Heinemann. ELT Journal, 1(43).

Paul, R. (1990). Critical Thinking: What every person needs to survive in a rapidly changing world. Rohnert Park. CA: Center for critical thinking and moral critique.

Peirce, B. (2005). Handbook of critical thinking resources. Retrieved May2, 2014, from www.criticalthinking.org/aboutCT/definingCT.shtml.

Rueda, R., MacGillivray, L., Monzó, L., & Arzubiaga, A. (2001). Engaged reading: A multi-level approach to considering sociocultural factors with diverse learners. In D. McInerny & S. VanEtten (Eds.), Research on sociocultural influences on motivation and learning. (pp. 233-264). Greenwich, Connecticut: Information Age Publishing, Inc.

Sunderland, J. (2000). Issues of language and gender in second and foreign language education. Language Teaching, 33, 203-223.

Wagner, R. K. (1997). Intelligence, training, and employment. American Psychologist, 52 (10), 1059–1069.

Yarahmadi, M. (2011). Extravert Iranian EFL learners and critical thinking. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 1(12), 2590-2592.

Zare, M., Behjat, F., Abdollrahimzadeh, S. J. & Izadi, M. (2013). Critical thinking and Iranian EFL students’ listening comprehension. International journal of Linguistics, 5(6).


Comprehension & Critical Thinking

When reading a book, magazine, or newspaper, information and knowledge is conveyed from the writer to the reader in a linear fashion. This means the knowledge comes to us one word and one concept at a time in chronological order. As we take in the information we read, our minds process images in complex thinking patterns. Try to remember the last book you read and how the author described a specific place or setting. What did you see in your mind? What pictures did you create? As we process the writer’s individual words, our mind envisions what is described and stores that knowledge for us to retrieve it when we need it. Through visualization, we build the foundational blocks for comprehension and critical thinking.

Many students who struggle with comprehension grasp only parts of what they read, recalling a few details, names, and dates, but fail to process the entire whole. Students who can read letters and words, which are the parts, or “pieces,” of the cognitive “puzzle,” may not perceive the whole, or the entire “puzzle.”  In the reading “puzzle,” students must not only read letters and words, but also use reasoning, critical thinking, interpretation, and comprehension to become a holistic reader. Essentially, reading is ineffective if a student does not remember what they just read.

If your child struggles with comprehension or critical thinking, it could be the reason why they have difficulty remembering the main idea of stories, taking standardized tests, completing simple tasks, and recalling important details in school and at home.

Comprehension & Critical Thinking Challenges

Children who struggle with comprehension may experience:
  • Weak comprehension and process of written and oral language
  • Weakness in higher order thinking skills
  • Weak visual and auditory memory
Comprehension Solutions

At Integrated Learning Strategies, we first target three separate areas (auditory, visual, and language) as precursors to our comprehension program. When our students master these three areas, our expert instructors mentor students in our research-based comprehension program that teaches them to do the following:
  • Recognize main ideas (and relate details back to the main idea)
  • Recall what they read (retelling it in their own words)
  • Sequence and follow directions
  • Identify and recall details
  • Summarize and identify plot and story line
Critical Thinking Solutions

What makes a child successful in today’s world is not only how they process and perceive information, but how they apply it. Critical thinking plays a larger role in career development due to the pressures of employers who want creative, out-of-the box thinkers that help improve business. As our students begin to grasp reading and comprehension, we also encompass critical thinking skills into our programs. Incorporating critical thinking in our programs gives students the opportunity to connect what they read with real life situations to understand the big picture.

The critical thinking techniques we apply in our program are as follows:

  • Analyzing predictions and conclusions
  • Applying cause and effect
  • Making connections and associations
  • Classifying into categories (similarities and differences)
  • Compare and contrast
  • Inferencing
  • Making generalizations
  • Apply understanding to a new situation

0 comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *